Neuro-ophthalmology is a field that merges neurology and ophthalmology. It mainly deals with diseases of the nervous system that affects vision, control the movement of eyes or abnormalities of pupil.

It is the brain that resolves the image that is captured by the human eye. Mainly the optic nerve is responsible for the transfer of visual stimuli and any damage or dysfunction of this optic nerve may lead to impairment of vision.

Optic nerve disorders include the following:

Raised pressure in eye or glaucoma

Not enough blood supply or ischaemia

Eye injury

Raised pressure in the brain


Double vision

Photophobia (difficulty in seeing light)


Disorders of eye movement that can affects certain parts of the brain that control the movement and obstruct the signal transmission between nerve and muscle.

Optic neuritis

Optic nerve atrophy


The causes of neuro-ophthalmological disorders include the following:

Tumors that cause compression

Blood supply reduction


Decreased vision

Unequal pupils

Double vision


The treatment of certain neuro-ophthalmological disorders depends on the type.


Visual Acuity

Colour Vision (Testing By Pseudo Ishihara Chart)

Amsler Grid Test

Pupil Examination

Confrontation Visual Fields

Hess Charting

Fundus Examination

Visual Fields


Ocular Movements/ Position - Any phoria or tropia, lid position (retraction or ptosis), head posture, ocular movements – any obvious deviation, nystagmus, saccades, convergence

Nystagmus – Observe for any abnormal head posture for maintaining in the null position